Mars rocks collected by Perseverance boost case for ancient life

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  NASA's Perseverance Mars rover has now collected two rock samples, with signs that they were in contact with water for a long period of time boosting the case for ancient life on the Red Planet. "It looks like our first rocks reveal a potentially habitable sustained environment," said Ken Farley, project scientist for the mission, in a statement Friday. "It's a big deal that the water was there for a long time." The six-wheeled robot collected its first sample, dubbed "Montdenier" on September 6, and its second, "Montagnac" from the same  rock  on September 8. Both samples, slightly wider than a pencil in diameter and about six centimeters long, are now stored in sealed tubes in the rover's interior. ALSO, READ- India's first Paralympic Gold in shooting won by Avani Lekhara A first attempt at collecting a  sample  in early August failed after the rock proved too crumbly to withstand Perseverance's drill. The rover has been o

India's 'Population Explosion' & Two-Child Policy: Myths Versus Facts

India's 'Population Explosion' & Two-Child Policy: Myths Versus Facts


The proposed population control policies of Bharatiya Janata Party-ruled states Assam and Uttar Pradesh have drawn flak as yet another means of polarising the society on communal lines.


The Hindutva story has constantly assaulted the Muslim people group for supposed high rates of birth, regularly guaranteeing that the Muslim populace is set to assume control over India. 


Giriraj Singh, previous MoS for MSME, had said that an expanding populace, "particularly Muslims, is a danger to the social texture, social congruity, and improvement of the country". Rajasthan BJP MLA Bhanwari Lal had said that dissimilar to Hindus, "Muslims are stressed about...how to assume control over the country by expanding their populace." 


Indeed, even Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath has expressed that the two-kid strategy is pointed toward guaranteeing "there is a populace balance among different networks". 


Prior to June, Assam Chief Minister Himanta Biswa Sarma had raked up a discussion by saying that, "We can tackle various social ills in Assam if settler Muslim people group embraces nice family arranging standards." He had additionally met with 150 Muslim educated people prior to declaring the motivating forces for the two-youngster strategy in Assam. 


In any case, how evident are these charges? We expose a couple of legends. 


Fantasies Vs Facts: Is There a Muslim 'Populace Explosion'? 


Albeit higher rates of birth among Muslims have been utilized as a contention to legitimize that Muslims are answerable for "populace blast", the differential rates of birth among Hindus and Muslims are quick quitting for the day. 


While the Hindu populace developed by 16.76 percent, Muslims developed by 24.6 percent contrasted with the information from the earlier decade, when Hindus developed at 19.92 percent and Muslims at 29.52 percent. 


What this information demonstrates is that the rates of birth in these two networks are gradually concealing. Rather than a state-wide arrangement, Shailaja Chandra, previous secretary in the Ministry of Health, recommends: 


"The NFHS (National Family Health Survey) information gives a decent comprehension of the spaces which have high ripeness rates in Uttar Pradesh. Individuals should brush the towns that fall on those areas, target just those families, and it doesn't make any difference which local area, and see that contraception is made accessible." 


Legends Vs Facts: Does Polygamy Increase Population? 


It has likewise been asserted that polygamous practices among Muslim people groups are answerable for a populace spike. 


Yet, in his book The Population Myth: Islam, Family Planning and Politics in India, previous boss political race magistrate SY Quraishi brings up that such a speculation overlooks two realities – the absolute fruitfulness rate that demonstrates normal birth per lady and the sex proportion factor – the two of which will be unaffected by polygamous practices. 


Furthermore, polygamy is polished among the two Hindus and Muslims in India. The solitary examination done on polygamy in India done in the year 1974, showed that Muslims were the most un-polygamous. 


Fantasies Vs Facts: Does Only Religious Difference Determine Population Growth? 


Hindus being under danger from a developing Muslim populace in the nation is seen by numerous individuals as a politically inspired purposeful publicity, essentially in light of the fact that religion alone doesn't decide distinction in populace development. 


Some significant variables to take a gander at are financial gap, instructive separation, and rustic metropolitan gap. For correlation, according to the NFHS IV review, there's a stamped distinction between the absolute fruitfulness pace of Muslims in Uttar Pradesh and Kerala. In the event that it was 3.10 in Uttar Pradesh, in Kerala it was at 1.86. 


In the event that we dive further into India's crowded state Uttar Pradesh, the ripeness rates vary in rustic and metropolitan regions. In the event that it is at 2.1 kids per lady in metropolitan regions, it's 3.0 youngsters per lady in provincial regions. Ladies with no tutoring will have 1.6 youngsters more than ladies who had at least 12 years of tutoring (a complete fruitfulness pace of 3.5, contrasted, and 1.9). 


Male centric thoughts additionally have their impact in populace increment. The study from Uttar Pradesh discovered that "Ladies in Uttar Pradesh are bound to utilize contraception on the off chance that they as of now have a child. For instance, among ladies with two youngsters, 54 percent with no less than one child utilize a technique for family arranging, contrasted and just 34% of ladies with two little girls." 


The state information shows that Muslim ladies will have a normal of practically a large portion of a youngster more than Hindu ladies however that factor isn't affected by religion alone. Maybe, it relates to financial conditions like proficiency and pay. 


Some Other Facts About India's Population Growth 


It has been guage that India will turn into the world's most crowded country by 2027. Also, given the country's gigantic populace, conversations on populace control measures have been progressing since the actual formation of India. 


The decision BJP government, as well, has demonstrated that this is a space of center for them with Prime Minister Narendra Modi representing the worry of a "populace blast" which may cause "numerous issues for our people in the future" in his 2017 Independence Day discourse. 


What does information educate us regarding where India's populace development is going? 


Passing by the past evaluation reports, India's populace has grown multiple times somewhere in the range of 1901 and 2011. However, it has been seeing a general decrease in the absolute fruitfulness rate. 


A testimony by the Center said, "According to the Census, 2001-2011 is the principal decade over the most recent 100 years which has not just added lesser populace when contrasted with the past one, yet additionally enrolled the keenest decrease in the decadal development rate from 21.54 percent in 1991-2001 to 17.64 percent in 2001-2011. " 


The information likewise showed that somewhere around 25 states as of now have a ripeness rate underneath 2.1. 


With regards to "populace blast", the Hindi belt is lingering behind, with Bihar and Uttar Pradesh being the states with the most noteworthy absolute richness rate. In any case, they, as well, are demonstrating a decrease in development. 


Uttar Pradesh, which has reliably had a high decadal development generally, has seen a declining development rate from 25.85 percent in 1991-2001 to 20.9 percent between 2001-2011. 


However, India is required to add almost 273 million individuals to its populace somewhere in the range of 2019 and 2050, a UN report said. Anyway, how would we handle the populace issue? 


Could Coercive Measures Tackle Population Growth? 


The family government assistance program in the nation is deliberate. However, it's difficult for Uttar Pradesh and Assam alone that are proposing populace control enactments. 


Different states like Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, and Telangana have presented comparable laws in a bid to handle populace development. 


Yet, can coercive strategies like the two-kid strategy help the state administrations of Uttar Pradesh and Assam accomplish their target? 


One might say the strategy recommendations conflict with the Center's idea on family government assistance program. 


As of late in 2020, the Center had told the Supreme Court in an oath that "global experience shows that any pressure to have a specific number of kids is counter-useful and prompts segment twists." Such a law, the Center noted could have the accidental effect of sex particular and perilous early terminations and a further slant in sex proportion. 


Shailaja Chandra says the elements to be looked at are "not coercive strategies, but rather the topic of when to have a youngster and early relationships". 


"On the off chance that the young ladies are hitched later and they're permitted to examine, unquestionably advantages of laborer cooperations and every one of the things that have an effect to a nation will become all-good. Lamentably, neither one of the arrangements talks about those angles," she says.

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